There are many ways to structure your research project. You may be given an exact structure to follow from your supervisor or you may have to decide on the structure that most suits your project. You should always consult your module handbook and your supervisor when deciding on the structure of your project.
In this section you will find some general advice about creating a coherent structure, some examples of common structures and some guidance to the type of content that is usually included in the different sections of a research project. You will not need to include all of the sections covered below; instead choose the parts relevant for your specific project.
Click below to see some example structures for different types of project:
If you are using a literature-based structure, you might look at:
If you are writing a research report, you might look at:
If you are writing a business report, you might look at:
If you are writing a technical report, you might look at:
There are different chapter combinations depending on your type of project – consult your supervisor if you are unsure. There are more example structures within the advice about creating a coherent structure directly below.
You will need to consider both the overall structure of your project and the structure within each chapter/section. It will be easier to understand and identify your key points if your work is organised in a logical and coherent manner. This means thinking about your reader; what do they need to know and in what order? You should have a clear idea of the questions you are answering and the argument(s) that will build throughout your project. Each chapter/section should link together with a common theme that underpins the whole of your work, and should lead towards a logical conclusion.
It can be useful to outline the overall structure as part of your introduction particularly if you are not using a prescriptive structure (i.e. intro, literature review, methodology, findings, discussion, conclusion). Explain briefly to the reader what will be in each chapter and why. Outline your key arguments and the order in which they will be presented. It can also be useful to include a short introduction and conclusion within each chapter.
Use meaningful headings and sub-headings to guide your reader through your written work. The examples below show tables of contents for different types of research project. You will notice that each project uses very specific headings to inform their reader of what to expect in that section. This will help the reader, but also helps you to plan your content and ensure it is in a logical order and directly relevant to your topic.
Video - What does a coherent structure look like?
Presented at the start of your research project after the title page, the abstract provides a brief summary of your whole project and should be written at the end of the process. It should include:
If you are writing a business report you may be expected to include an executive summary instead of an abstract. Written last, it will be presented after the title page and will provide a summary of the report. It will usually be longer than a research abstract (approx. 2 paragraphs), and will:
This is where you will set the scene for the rest of your project. There is not one way to write it, but asking yourself these questions can help you to present a clear and well-structured introduction:
If you are not incorporating a separate literature review or background chapter you might include a review of relevant current literature in your introduction.
The use of themed chapters is common in arts and humanities, or if you are undertaking a literature-based project. These chapters are where you will present and build your arguments. Each chapter should deal with a major aspect of your subject but link together. Remember you are constructing an argument, not just reporting your research or the research of others. You should analyse and evaluate the primary evidence, arguments ideas and conclusions presented.
Give your chapter clear titles, not just chapter 1, chapter 2 etc. Your title should accurately reflect the content and should be consistent in terms of tone and writing style.
You will probably find that you have a lot of material to read through for your research project, and that can feel overwhelming. There are different strategies that you can use to help make your reading more efficient and to decide which sources are relevant to your project.
Video - What is a literature review and why is it an important part of a research project?
A literature review IS NOT:
A literature review SHOULD:
Video - What did you find most difficult about doing your literature review?
Every literature review is different; how you structure your review will depend on the type of final year project you are writing and what subject you are studying. It is a good idea to seek guidance from your supervisor.
Below are some common structures that could be considered, and it may be appropriate to combine these approaches. You may want to check with your supervisor about which structure(s) would be most appropriate for you.
Once you have decided on the structure of your review, you can develop headings and subheadings.
When deciding on the structure of your literature review, you may want to think about the degree of depth that you need to go into when discussing previous research. You could structure your review by starting off with general references to the literature in the topic area, then move closer to the literature that is directly relevant to your study. This is sometimes referred to as a funnel structure.
Funnel model adapted from Succeeding with your doctorate by Wellington et al., 2005.
Longs shots and close ups adapted from Surviving your dissertation by Rudestam, 2007.
The introduction to your literature review may include:
Checklist adapted from Writing a Literature Review session, delivered by Dr Hazel Kent and Jane Sharp, Bishop Grosseteste University College, Lincoln, 2011.
When you start to write your literature review, you need to draw on the critiques you have developed during the critical reading stage. You should be writing critically about the literature which can include:
Conclude your literature review with a statement that summarises your review and links this to your own research/current issues.
This checklist will help you assess your literature review. Writing a literature review is an iterative process, so be prepared to re-visit it if you feel you haven’t addressed all of these questions:
Anticipate readers’ questions, do not leave your work open to questions such as:
The methods section would usually appear after your literature review. For more information about what goes into this section, please see Researching Your Topic.
You might combine your findings and discussion into one chapter, or you might present them in two separate chapters.
You should provide an objective description of the key findings that help you to answer your research question(s). Even if your findings/results section is separate from your discussion, it is usually appropriate to highlight any significant results, indicating whether they confirm, partially support, are inconclusive, or contradict your hypothesis or previous research.
You need to consider the best way to organise your results, such as under the headings that reflect your research questions or by importance; consult your supervisor if you are unsure.
You should consider using headings and sub-headings to help your reader navigate your results.
Where appropriate, use tables, graphs or other visual aids to help your reader understand your results. Make sure they are clearly labelled and that you explain them in your text. You don’t need to present all of your data/results in this section, just highlight the key trends and use your appendix to provide the rest of the data.
You need to interpret and critically analyse your results and explain to what extent and in what way they answer your research questions. You need to set your findings within the context of existing research that you will have discussed earlier in your project, usually in the literature review. It might be helpful to consider the following questions:
Here you can return your writing to the context of the wider academic debates. This should draw everything together and reiterate your main argument(s). Don’t bring in any new ideas/theories into your conclusion; anything you write about here should already have been discussed in the main body.
You need to include a list of all the material you have cited throughout your project. Check with your school which referencing style you should use. For more information on referencing see Writing Up Your Project.
This is supplementary material that the reader may want to see, but does not fit into the main body of your project e.g. example questionnaire, consent forms, complete raw data. Clearly label your appendices (e.g Appendix A, Appendix B etc.) and use these labels when referring to your appendices in your project, e.g. "Appendix A shows…". Appendices are usually not included in your word count but make sure you check this with your supervisor.